© 2021

      Study of Education Systems

What is an Education System ?


Differentiated funding of higher education in the FWB

Retention at 3d year of nursery school

Education system of FWB

Poor or no French knowledge and skill

Inequalities of access to university

School careers of the European graduates

School catchment areas

Dual education system

D+ : criteria

D+ : student fluxes

Growing up in 2000

Early language learning

Why so many student fluxes in schools in positive discrimination ?

Consequences of the positive discrimination system in primary education, 2004.

Within the context of the positive discrimination (D+) assessment programme, the purpose of this study was to measure and analyze some system effects possibly produced by D+ policies in primary education. System effects mean that targeted policies (such as D+) can contribute to school context changes, mainly because some students move from one school to another during their schooling. These student fluxes have some consequences on the interdependence relationships between schools.

The hypothesis statement was that the D+ schools, branded as schools specialized in the reception of « difficult cases », enables the other schools to pass off taking charge of socially or learning underprivileged students. This process increases the school population segregation.

The methodology included 2 phases: a qualitative approach in 3 areas (Brussels, Charleroi, Verviers) and 12 primary D+ schools, consisting in interviews with school directors and intermediary agents (inspectors, PMS, etc.), and a quantitative approach, realized from a file listing the schooling careers over 2 years of all the FWB students.

Actually, there is no obvious huge relegation from non D+ to D+ schools. When relegation occurs, this is more towards special schools. A flux from non D+ to D+ can be observed often between schools with similar scocio-economic indices and often because of a house moving. There are significant fluxes from D+ to non D+ schools: the hypothesis statement cannot consequently be confirmed.

More info

Bouchat, T.-M., Delvaux, B., & Hindryckx G. (2005). Discrimination positive et mobilité scolaire. Rapport de recherche non publié. Liège : Service de pédagogie expérimentale de l’Université et UC Louvain : Cerisis.

Bouchat, T.-M., Delvaux, B., & Hindryckx G. (2008). Mobilité scolaire et composition sociale des écoles : le cas de l'enseignement fondamental en Communauté française de Belgique. Cahiers de recherche en éducation et formation, 62.


Delvaux, B., Bouchat, T.-M., & Hindryckx G. (2008). Espace local et choix du lieu de scolarisation dans l'enseignement fondamental : le cas de trois espaces locaux urbains en Communauté française de Belgique. Cahiers de recherche en éducation et formation, 64.